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Complete denture relining
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Date: 09/12/2010 13:42
Complete denture relining
#post248
Def: resurfacing tissue side of the denture with new material to produce accurate adaptation to denture foundation

Causes of residual ridge resorption
1. Metabolic diseased: diabetes-osteoporosis-osteomylacia
2. Occlusal disharmonies (premature occlusal contact-uneven bear)
3. Increased vertical dimension of occlusion
4. Continuous wearing of the denture day and night
5. Improper use of denture adhesive
6. Use of porcelain instead of acrylic resin teeth

Advantages of relining:
1. Increase stability and retention of the denture
2. Provide good force distribution
3. Correct occlusion and vertical dimension
4. Increase esthetics and restore facial support

Indications of relining:
1. Residual ridge resorption to increase stability and retention
2. ill fitted denture to increase adaptation of the denture to the tissues
3. Immediate denture after resorption occurs
4. Chronic ill and geriatric patient
5. Problems of knife edge ridge, mucosal soreness, ridge undercuts (when soft liner used)
6. Economic causes: to avoid the cost of the new dentures

Contraindications of relining:
1. When the following occlusal problems exists:
 Centric relation not coincident with centric occlusion
 Occlusal disharmonies (premature-deflective occlucal contact)
 Incorrect occlusal plane
 Increase vertical dimension of occlusion (decrease free way space)
 Arch form not in harmony with excessive ridge resorption
2. Inadequate denture esthetics: bad color of the teeth or the denture base- in adequate size or form of the teeth
3. Inadequate denture phonetics
4. T.M.J. problems
5. Excessive amount of ridge resorption exists
6. Excessive short denture border (not cover denture foundation)

Disadvantages of relining:
1. May increase vertical dimension and produce occlusal errors
2. Increase the thickness of the denture base
3. Displacement of the denture base which may produce labial prominence and change occlusal plane
4. Displacement of the soft tissue which cause interference with blood circulation and ridge resorption
5. Alter palatal contour which may change the speech
6. Vertical position, centric relation, patient control, material manipulation and esthetics are difficult to be satisfied at once

Preparations for relining
A. Patient preparation:
 Patient examination: examine each of the following
 Vertical dimension, centric relation, occlusal plane, inter arch space
 Ridge undercuts and denture base tissue coverage
 Posterior palatal seal
 Speech and appearance
 Tissue preparation:
 Non-surgical prep: allow mucosal recovery by tissue rest, use of tissue conditioner, tissue massage and soft diet.
 Surgical prep: excision of hyper plastic tissue- vestibuloplasty

B. Denture preparation:
 Correct occlusal disharmonies by selective grinding: establish bilateral simultaneous contact in centric occlusion at accepted vertical dimension of occlusion
 Boil the denture for 5 min to decrease internal stresses resulted from self cure acrylic resin
 Shorten all denture borders 2mm the except posterior border (make the borders flat for the impression material)
 Grind the fitting surface 1-2mm to provide space for the impression material
 Remove the middle of the palatal portion of the maxillary denture to decrease denture displacement
 Eliminate all undercuts in the denture base

C. Establishing occlusal relation (recording centric relation)
1. Using inter-occlusal record:
It is a material used to register occlusal relation of opposing teeth: on which patient closes during relining
Advantages:
Establish occlusal relation of opposing teeth during relining procedure
Correct occlusal disharmonies in centric occlusion by making equal contact which provide equalized pressure on the soft tissue by the denture base while impression making
Materials:
Requirements: interocclusal record material should have the following requirements:
 High fluidity to decrease soft tissue distortion
 Hard and rigid when sets
 Minimal dimensional changes
 Produce fine details (accuracy)
 Minimal resistance to closure to avoid mandibular deflection
Types: wax-compound-zinc oxide eugenol-plaster-silicone rubber base.

2. Central bearing device: ex gothic arch tracer

D. Precautions during relining:
1. Avoid increase in vertical dimension of occlusion
2. Avoid changing horizontal relation (centric relation should coincident with centric occlusion)
3. Avoid increase the thickness of the denture base
4. Avoid forward movement of the maxillary denture during impression making
5. Obtain maximum inter-cuspation in centric relation

Relining techniques:
A. Open mouth technique
B. Closed mouth technique
I. Direct relining technique
a) chair side technique
b) functional impression technique
II. Indirect relining technique (laboratory relining)
a) Maxillary denture relining (winkler)
1. Technique (1):
2. Technique (2):
3. Technique (3):
4. Technique (4):
b) Mandibular denture relining (winkler)
5. Technique (5):

A. Open mouth technique (boucher)
Technique:
- After necessary denture preparations were made, compound handles are added to maxillary and mandibular denture for handling during the impression making
- Adhesive tapes are added to the polished surface of the upper and lower denture
- Use the upper and lower denture base to make maxillary and mandibular impression independently then make a new centric relation record to correct occlusal discrepancies
Advantages:
- Minimal patient cooperation needed
- Trimming and molding the peripheries during the impression are possible thus avoiding thick denture peripheries
Disadvantages:
- Need more clinical and laboratory time
- Result in more occlusal errors

B. Closed mouth technique(winkler)
- Use existing centric occlusion of the denture during impression making
- May use centric interocclusal record or needle point tracer to record centric relation
- The patient perform functional movement during the impression: swallow- protrude lips-blow- protrude the tongue and move it to the right and left



I. Direct relining technique
a. chair side technique
Material used:
1. Hard relining material: self cure acrylic resin
2. Soft relining materials: acrylic (self cure- heat cure) soft liner- silicone (self cure- heat cure) soft liner
Technique:
- After necessary denture preparations were made, self cure acrylic resin or soft lining material (acrylic – silicone) is mixed and applied to the fitting surface of the prepared denture
- The denture is inserted in the patient mouth and the patient gently bites in centric occlusion to ensure that the occlusion remain unchanged
- The denture was kept in place for 5 min then removed and placed in the hydro-flask for completing the curing to decrease porosity in the relining
- In case of soft liner or tissue conditioner used, excess relining material was trimmed with sharp scalpel
Advantages:
- High adaptation of the fitting surface of the denture to the underlying soft tissues
Disadvantages:
- Chemical burn of the patient mucosa due to irritation from residual monomer
- Porous relining may resulted leading to bad odor, fungal growth and unstable color of the relining
- It is short term solution

b. Functional impression technique
Steps:
- Correct occlusion of the old denture-centric relation should coincident with centric occlusion
- Denture borders reduced 1-2mm and the fitting surface of the denture ground 2mm to provide room for the impression material (tissue conditioner)
- Oral tissues should rest 24 hours before impression making
- Tissue conditioner is mixed and applied to the prepared denture and the denture is inserted in the patient mouth and the patient is asked to close in centric occlusion
- The denture is removed and excess tissue conditioner is trimmed with sharp scalpel
- The denture is reinserted in the patient mouth and the patient is dismissed for 5 days and instructed to perform functional movement (eating- swallowing-speaking) and par functional movement (during sleep). Avoid eating solid or hot food
- The material is not allowed to remain in patient mouth more than 1 week as after this period it is hardened, lost plasticizers and cause tissue injury.
- Patient returned and denture is examined foe denuded areas (areas in which tissue conditioner removed), mark these area with indelible pencil and relieve these areas.
- New layer of tissue conditioner is applied and ask the patient to wait 30 min in the waiting room and eat a light meal, if no pressure areas were detected allow the tissue conditioner to remain 45 min in place to ensure registration of fine details
- This impression is satisfactory for the lower ridge, but for the upper, ZOE wash impression is taken and Iowa was is added to PPS to ensure peripheral seal
- The tissue conditioner was considered as a master impression and poured immediately, then replaced with acrylic resin. Pressure indicating past was used to relieve pressure area at denture insertion
Advantages:
- More equal load distribution due to viscoelastic properties of the tissue conditioner
- Low initial viscosity and steady rise in elasticity allow the tissue to return to normal condition
- Record the mucosa during function
- Achieve maximum extension into buccal and lingual sulci
- Patient not leave the denture at the dentist
Disadvantages:
- Not record fine details so need wash impression


II. Indirect relining technique (laboratory relining)
- The impression is made with prepared denture while patient closes lightly in centric occlusion
- The technician replaces the impression material in the laboratory with self cure acrylic resin (to decrease worpage)

c) Maxillary denture relining (winkler)
1. Technique (1):
Steps:
- Large part of the middle of palatal portion of maxillary denture is removed as no resorption occur in the palate (resorption occurs at ridges only)
- Make impression with the prepared denture using zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) while patient bites on previously made interocclusal record
- Make impression to the exposed part of the palate with quick setting plaster
Advantages:
- Minimize increase in the vertical dimension
- Minimize displacement of the upper denture forward during impression making by decreasing hydraulic pressure inside the fitting surface of the denture
Disadvantages:
- Difficulty in relining both dentures at the same time
- Not completely eliminate forward movement of the upper denture

2. Technique (2):
Steps:
- Outline the area of the palate needed to be removed and grind it (deepen it without complete removal) then make multiple perforation at 5-6 mm interval in this depression to facilitate palatal portion removal during packing
- Impression taken to the labial flange and the alveolar ridge between the 2 canine areas using impression wax (Iowa wax) to decrease forward movement of the upper denture
Advantages:
- Decrease forward movement of the upper denture
Disadvantages:
- Difficulty to work with impression wax due to distortion

3. Technique (3):
Steps:
- labial and palatal flanges perforated to decrease hydraulic pressure inside the upper denture during impression thus decrease movement of the denture

4. Technique (4):
Steps:
- Denture border shorten to make a flat border
- Adhesive tape is attached to the labial and buccal surface of the maxillary denture short 2mm from the borders
- Large opening is prepared in the palatal portion of maxillary denture to decrease denture displacement during the impression

d) Mandibular denture relining (winkler)
5. Technique (5):
Indication: to restore loss of vertical dimension of occlusion
Steps:
- Compound added to the occlusal surface of mandibular posterior teeth and ask the patient to say ‘M’ till obtain correct vertical dimention
- Mount the upper cast to the articulator with face-bow and the lower cast is related to the upper cast with the compound inter occlusal record in maximum intercuspation and mounted
- Remove compound from occlusal surface of mandibular posterior teeth and soften it and transfer it to the fitting surface of the lower denture
- Close the articulator till incisal pin touch the incisal table
Advantages:
- Restore vertical dimension and decrease errors in centric occlusion
Disadvantages:
- Time consuming

Impression materials used for relining: Requirements:
- Produce fine details
- Have sufficient flow to decrease displacement and trapping in the palatal area
Types:
1. Zinc oxide eugenol:
- High accuracy (produce fine details)
- Decrease pressure and decrease tissue distorsion
- Dimensional stability
- Have burning sensation due to eugenol content: use non-eugenol ZO in case of inflamed mucosa
2. Light body rubber base:
- Produce fine details, good tissue addaptation
- Have high flow, minimal tissue displacement
- Long setting time
3. Compound
- Used to restore VD, used with ZOE wash
4. Plaster:
- High flow and minimal tissue displacement
- Break from the under cut on removal
Edited: 09/12/2010 13:49

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B.D.S. (2003) Misr University for Science& Technology - MUST
H.D.D. of Prosthodontics (2007) Mansoura University
M.D.s. of Prosthodontics (2011) Mansoura University
Council Member of D.K. Dental Syndicate - Egypt
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